Three Fathoms Observatory
Stewart Yeung













  •     The Challenge of Physics in the 21st Century



  • 1. Mystery of Low Entropy at the beginning of our Universe

    Can a random trough in entropy fluctuation together with Anthropic Priniciple explain the extremely rare low entropy of our early Universe? Is our Big Bang just a localized baby universe in a larger background spacetime of multiverse at various states of entropy fluctuation?? What is the origin of matter,energy,spacetme and the fundamental forces? What is the formation mechanism of our Universe?

    The theory of Quantum Gravity, if successfully constructed, may shed light on this very special initial condition when the emerging Universe is of Planck scale. String/Brane theories are probable candidates of Quantum Gravity.


    2. Poincare Dodecahedral Shape (2003 Jean-Pierre Luminet et al.) of the Universe?

    What is the 3-manifold of the co-moving space? Is it unmeasurable due to our limited observation time horizon? Are there extra dimensions? Is there a Pre-Geometry structure giving rise to topology and dimensions? Can the Cosmic Background Radiation power spectrum of cosmological density wave give us sufficient clues to answer this question?


    3. What constitue the Dark Energy and Dark Matter? (Stars 0.4% /Intergalactic Gas 3.6% /Dark Matter 22% /Dark Energy 74%)

    What causes the accelerating expansion of the Universe? Can Quintessence models of a new dynamic scalar field (the 5th unobserved fundamental force) explain Dark Energy? Are there hitherto undiscovered particles accounting for the Dark Matter?


    4. Mystery of Fundamental Physical Constants (Planck constant, mass ratios,fine structure constant,g, c, electric constant, magnetic constant...)

    Is there a theory explaining their values other than the Anthropic Principle? Are these constants changing over cosmic time? Are they different in other universe in the multiverse model?


    xxx 5. Superluminous Muon Neutrinos (detected in 2011 by OPERA, the Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus)

    Is the faster than light speed by 1/40,000 just due to measurement errors? Are there unknown physics involved? Can it be attributable to Muon Neutrinos short-cutting through extra dimensions? Is it due to a warped space near our Earth?

    In March 2011 the superluminous speed has proved to be non-existent as it was found that a loose optical cable caused measurement errors of 60 nanoseconds.

    6. Human Consciousness

    What physical (or otherwise) mechanism gives rise to sentience within arrangements of non-sentience particles in the human brains?


    First Draft by Stewart Yeung on 8 Jan 2012

    Second Draft on 27 Jan 2012

    Third Draft on 4 Feb 2012

    Fourth Draft on 18 April 2012